vertical analysis formula

Financial statements that show only
percentages and no absolute dollar amounts are common-size statements. All
percentage figures in a common-size balance sheet are
percentages of total assets while all the items in a
common-size income statement are percentages of net
sales. The use of common-size statements facilitates
vertical analysis of a company’s financial statements. Vertical analysis refers to the comparative analysis of the financial statement in which each line item is represented as a percentage of the base item.

What are the calculations for horizontal analysis?

Horizontal Analysis Formula

To calculate a horizontal analysis, subtract the value in the base year from the value in the comparison year, divide this result by the value in the base year, then multiply by 100.

From the analysis made, it can be concluded that the percentage of total liabilities had decreased in the year 2008 from the year 2007. The percentage of total equity had increased in the year 2008 from its previous year, and the relative size of each asset had increased in the year 2008 from the year 2007. Unsurprisingly, vertical analysis is often contrasted with horizontal analysis. As we’ve already established, vertical analysis involves working through your finance sheet line-by-line in order to compare your entries to one base figure. This helps you easily recognise changes in your organisation over time and view any significant profits or losses. In a vertical analysis, you would use financial information each year to calculate the relationship of each line item to a base amount.

Excel skills used in this vertical analysis

As a company grows, it often becomes more difficult to sustain the same rate of growth, even if the company grows in pure dollar size. This percentage method is most useful when identifying changes over a longer period of time where there may be significant deviations from the base period to the current period. Generally accepted accounting principles bookkeeping for startups (GAAP) are based on the consistency and comparability of financial statements. Using consistent accounting principles like GAAP ensures consistency and the ability to accurately review a company’s financial statements over time. Comparability is the ability to review two or more different companies’ financials as a benchmarking exercise.

By looking that the balance sheet above, you can see that while your current asset total went down in accounts receivable, your fixed asset total went up. When using horizontal analysis, balance sheet totals for two periods are required. An example of vertical analysis would be if you took a company’s total revenue and divided it by the number of products they sell. This would give you an idea of how much each product contributes to the company’s overall revenue. If you want to get an overview of a company’s financials, vertical analysis is a great place to start.

How do you calculate the vertical analysis?

The items on the income statement are presented as a percentage of total revenue, and the items on the balance sheet are presented as a percentage of total assets or total liabilities. The vertical analysis of the cash flow statement is made by showing each cash outflow and inflow as a percentage of the total cash inflows. The items on the income statement are presented as a percentage of total revenue, and the items of the balance sheet are presented as a percentage of total assets or total liabilities.

vertical analysis formula

However, you can do this very quickly for multiple years, particularly if you’re using an income statement template. Once you know what time period to focus on, you need to choose the documents and values you want to analyze. For example, you could choose to study the contribution of each revenue stream to the total amount of revenue using the information from the balance sheet. There you go, so here’s your formula equals B6 divided by B6 and most people I know will tell you, you need to make this absolute reference by pressing the f4 function key. A basic vertical analysis needs an individual statement for a reporting period but comparative statements may be prepared to enhance the usefulness of analysis.

Vertical Analysis Calculator – Excel Template

In the vertical analysis, though you cannot see that sales have increased, you can see that the gross margin, operating income, and net income have increased as a percentage of sales. This analysis will be used in conjunction with the horizontal analysis, ratio analysis, and others (described in a later lesson) to review the company’s operations. You can also use vertical analysis to compare different companies in the same industry.

This means Mistborn Trading saw an increase of $20,000 in revenue in the current year as compared to the prior year, which was a 20% increase. The same dollar change and percentage change calculations would be used for the income statement line items as well as the balance sheet line items. The figure below shows the complete horizontal analysis of the income statement and balance sheet for Mistborn Trading. On the other hand, horizontal analysis looks at changes in specific dollar amounts for each period, highlighting the changes line-by-line over two specific accounting periods. Horizontal analysis also displays percentage change for each balance sheet item as well.

For example, a business may compare cash to total assets in the current year. This allows a business to see what percentage of cash (the comparison line item) makes up total assets (the other line item) during the period. Vertical analysis compares line items within a statement in the current year. This can help a business to know how much of one item is contributing to overall operations. For example, a business may want to know how much inventory contributes to total assets. They can then use this information to make business decisions such as preparing the budget, cutting costs, increasing revenues, or investments in property plant or equipment.


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